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《关于快钱彩票有一个充值失败怎么办6=首页最新相关内容》:Questions and answers constitute the principal medium for acquiring technical information, and engineering apprentices should carefully study the philosophy of questions and answers, just as he does the principles of machinery. Without the art of questioning but slow progress will be made in learning shop manipulation. A proper question is one which the person asked will understand, and the answer be understood when it is given; not an easy rule, but a correct one. The main point is to consider questions before they are asked; make them relevant to the work in hand, and not too many. To ask frequent questions, is to convey an impression that the answers are not considered, an inference which is certainly a fair one, if the questions relate to a subject demanding some consideration. If a man is asked one minute what diametrical pitch means, and the next minute how much cast iron shrinks in cooling, he is very apt to be disgusted, and think the second question not worth answering.
【快钱彩票有一个充值失败怎么办6=首页】Fourth. Machinery of transportation.Keeping these various points in mind, an apprentice will derive both pleasure and advantage from tracing their application in steam-hammers, which may come under notice, and various modifications of the mechanism will only render investigation more interesting.
It is also necessary to learn as soon as possible the technicalities pertaining to lathe work, and still more important to learn the conventional modes of performing various operations. Although lathe work includes a large range of operations which are continually varied, yet there are certain plans of performing each that has by long custom become conventional; to gain an acquaintance with these an apprentice should watch the practice of the best workmen, and follow their plans as near as he can, not risking any innovation or change until it has been very carefully considered. Any attempt to introduce new methods, modes of chucking work, setting and grinding tools, or other of the ordinary operations in turning, may not only lead to awkward mistakes, but will at once put a stop to useful information that might otherwise be gained from others. The technical terms employed in describing lathe work are soon learned, generally sooner than they are needed, and are often misapplied, which is worse than to be ignorant of them.It is also necessary to learn as soon as possible the technicalities pertaining to lathe work, and still more important to learn the conventional modes of performing various operations. Although lathe work includes a large range of operations which are continually varied, yet there are certain plans of performing each that has by long custom become conventional; to gain an acquaintance with these an apprentice should watch the practice of the best workmen, and follow their plans as near as he can, not risking any innovation or change until it has been very carefully considered. Any attempt to introduce new methods, modes of chucking work, setting and grinding tools, or other of the ordinary operations in turning, may not only lead to awkward mistakes, but will at once put a stop to useful information that might otherwise be gained from others. The technical terms employed in describing lathe work are soon learned, generally sooner than they are needed, and are often misapplied, which is worse than to be ignorant of them.
Presuming an engineering establishment to consist of one-storey buildings, and the main operations to be conducted on the ground level, the only vertical lifting to be performed will be in the erecting room, where the parts of machines are assembled. This room should be reached in every part by over-head travelling cranes, that cannot only be used in turning, moving, and placing the work, but in loading it upon cars or waggons. One result of the employment of over-head travelling cranes, often overlooked, is a saving of floor-room; in ordinary fitting, from one-third more to twice the number of workmen will find room in an erecting shop if a travelling-crane is employed, the difference being that, in moving pieces they may pass over the top of other pieces instead of requiring long open passages on the floor. So marked is this saving of room effected by over-head cranes, that in England, where they are generally employed, handling is not only less expensive and quicker, but the area of erecting floors is usually one-half as much as in America, where travelling-cranes are not employed.(1.) What should determine the social rank of industrial callings?—(2.) Why have the physical sciences and mechanic arts achieved so honourable a position?—(3.) How may the general object of the engineering arts be described?—(4.) What is the difference between science and art as the terms are generally employed in connection with practical industry?
Different kinds of gearing can be seen in almost every engineering establishment, and in view of the amount of scientific information available, it will only be necessary to point out some of the conditions that govern the use and operation of the different kinds of wheels. The durability of gearing, aside from breaking, is dependent upon pressure and the amount of rubbing action that takes place between the teeth when in contact. Spur wheels, or bevel wheels, when the pitch is accurate and the teeth of the proper form, if kept clean and lubricated, wear but little, because the contact between the teeth is that of rolling instead of sliding. In many cases, one wheel of a pair is filled with wooden cogs; in this arrangement there are four objects, to avoid noise, to attain a degree of elasticity in the teeth, to retain lubricants by absorption in the wood, and to secure by wear a better configuration of the teeth than is usually attained in casting, or even in cutting teeth.
【快钱彩票有一个充值失败怎么办6=首页】Pneumatic machinery, aside from results due to the elasticity of air, is analogous in operation to hydraulic machinery.
These rules apply to forging, but in a different way from other processes. Unlike pattern-making or casting, the general processes in forging are uniform; and still more unlike pattern-making or casting, there is a measurable uniformity in the articles produced, at least in machine-forging, where bolts, screws, and shafts are continually duplicated.
【快钱彩票有一个充值失败怎么办6=首页】Founding and casting relate to forming parts of machinery by pouring melted metal into moulds, the force of gravity alone being sufficient to press or shape it into even complicated forms. As a process for shaping such metal as is not injured by the high degree of heat required in melting, moulding is the cheapest and most expeditious of all means, even for forms of regular outline, while the importance of moulding in producing irregular forms is such that without this process the whole system of machine construction would have to be changed. Founding operations are divided into two classes, known technically as green sand moulding, and loam or dry sand moulding; the first, when patterns or duplicates are used to form the moulds, and the second, when the moulds are built by hand without the aid of complete patterns. Founding involves a knowledge of mixing and melting metals such as are used in machine construction, the preparing and setting of cores for the internal displacement of the metal, cooling and shrinking strains, chills, and many other things that are more or less special, and can only be learned and understood from actual observation and practice.
This object is attained in planing machines by the friction of the belts, which not only cushions the platen like a spring, but in being shifted opposes a gradually increasing resistance until the momentum is overcome and the motion reversed. By multiplying the movement of the platen with levers or other mechanism, and by reason of the movement that is attained by momentum after the driving power ceases to act, it is found practicable to have a platen 'shift its own belts,' a result that would never have been reached by theoretical deductions, and was no doubt discovered by experiment, like the automatic movement of engine valves is said to have been.PREFACE.
【快钱彩票有一个充值失败怎么办6=首页】Politeness is as indispensable to a learner in a machine shop as it is to a gentleman in society. The character of the courtesy may be modified to suit the circumstances and the person, but still it is courtesy. An apprentice may understand differential calculus, but a workman may understand how to bore a steam cylinder; and in the workman's estimation a problem in calculus is a trivial thing to understand compared with the boring of a steam engine cylinder. Under these circumstances, if a workman is not allowed to balance some of his knowledge against politeness, an apprentice is placed at a disadvantage.A true movement of carriages is dependent upon the amount or wearing power of their bearing surface, how this surface is disposed in reference to the strain to be resisted, and the conditions under which the sliding surfaces move; that is, how kept in contact. The cutting strain which is to be mainly considered, falls usually at an angle of thirty to forty degrees downward toward the front, from the centre of the lathe. To resist such strain a flat top shear presents no surface at right angles to the strain; the bearings are all oblique, and not only this, but all horizontal strain falls on one side of the shear only; for this reason, flat top shears have to be made much heavier than would be required if the sum of their cross section could be employed to resist transverse strain. This difficulty can, however, be mainly obviated by numerous cross girts, which will be found in most lathe frames having flat tops.